A biomass gasification power plant in Strem near Güssing, Burgenland, Austria, began in 2005. Is sweet corn a vegetable or a grain? (The term "teosinte" describes all. 1100 BC. Before the 20th century, all maize harvesting was by manual labour, by grazing, or by some combination of those. This involved a large number of workers and associated social events (husking or shucking bees). Around 4,500 ago, maize began to spread to the north; it was first cultivated in what is now the United States at several sites in New Mexico and Arizona, about 4,100 ago. PRSCPH Maize is also used in making ethanol and other biofuels. Content disclaimer. The domesticated crop originated in the Americas and is one of the most widely distributed of the world’s food crops. Phylum: Spermatophyta. Here the maize is harvested, shredded then placed in silage clamps from which it is fed into the biogas plants. Shaw, 1978; Preferred Common Name. "The globalization of hybrid maize, 1921–70. In the late 19th century, pellagra reached epidemic proportions in parts of the southern US, as medical researchers debated two theories for its origin: the deficiency theory (which was eventually shown to be true) said that pellagra was due to a deficiency of some nutrient, and the germ theory said that pellagra was caused by a germ transmitted by stable flies. Sweet corn is harvested in the "milk stage", after pollination but before starch has formed, between late summer and early to mid-autumn. maize. The word "corn" outside the US, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand refers to any cereal crop, its meaning understood to vary geographically to refer to the local staple. Elongated stigmas, called silks, emerge from the whorl of husk leaves at the end of the ear. Genetic studies, published in 2004 by John Doebley, identified Zea mays ssp. More maize is produced, by weight, than any other grain, and almost every country on Earth cultivates maize commercially for a variety of uses. United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. Scientific name i: Zea mays: Taxonomy navigation › Zea All lower taxonomy ... Common name i: Maize: Synonym i-Other names i ›Zea mays L. ›Zea mays mays ›Zea mays var. Some of the maize chromosomes have what are known as "chromosomal knobs": highly repetitive heterochromatic domains that stain darkly. In North America, fields are often planted in a two-crop rotation with a nitrogen-fixing crop, often alfalfa in cooler climates and soybeans in regions with longer summers. [112], In the US since 2009/2010, maize feedstock use for ethanol production has somewhat exceeded direct use for livestock feed; maize use for fuel ethanol was 5,130 million bushels (130 million tonnes) in the 2013/2014 marketing year. [114], Note: All nutrient values including protein and fiber are in %DV per 100 grams of the food item. Before World War II, most maize in North America was harvested by hand. [79] Some have argued it would have taken too many generations of selective breeding to produce large, compressed ears for efficient cultivation. The region developed a trade network based on surplus and varieties of maize crops. Stone milling tools with maize residue have been found in an 8,700 year old layer of deposits in a cave not far from Iguala, Guerrero. In moderate amounts, they also supply dietary fiber and the essential minerals, magnesium and phosphorus whereas other nutrients are in low amounts (table). Zea mays. Legal Status. Modern breeding began with individuals who selected highly productive varieties in their fields and then sold seed to other farmers. This is consistent with a model based on the archaeological record suggesting that maize diversified in the highlands of Mexico before spreading to the lowlands. 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