Styrene Information & Resources Center. Dichloromethane (DCM) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were purchased from Daejung Chemicals & Metals Co., Ltd. (Seoul, Korea). O’Neill AJ, Prencipe M, Dowling C, et al. This derivative of benzene is a colorless oily liquid, although aged samples can appear yellowish. Spherical shape and similar particle size, compared to the hydrodynamic size (Table 1), of NPs are shown in FE-SEM images (Figure 2B). In: Hygienic guide series. Water and soil: Styrene evaporates from shallow soils and surface water. Taxotere was obtained from Sanofi S.A. Docetaxel (DCT) was acquired from LC Laboratories (Woburn, MA, USA). CAS number: 100–42–5 NIOSH REL: 50 ppm (215 mg/m 3) TWA, 100 ppm (425 mg/m 3) STEL Current OSHA PEL: 100 ppm TWA, 200 ppm CEILING, 600 ppm 5-minute MAXIMUM PEAK IN ANY 3 HOURS. Fixed cells were treated with Vectashield® mounting medium containing 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI; H-1200; Vector Laboratories Inc., Burlingame, CA, USA) to prevent fading of fluorescence and to stain the nuclei blue. Poly(styrene)-b-poly(DL-lactide) (PS-PDLLA) copolymer-based nanoparticles (NPs) of a narrow size distribution, negative zeta potential, and spherical shape were fabricated for the delivery of docetaxel (DCT). Yang R, Yang SG, Shim WS, et al. All other reagents were of analytical grade and were acquired from commercial sources. Male BALB/c mice (10 weeks old; Charles River Laboratories, Wilmington, MA, USA) were used for serum biochemistry analysis of PS-PDLLA NPs. Drowsiness, nausea, headache, fatigue, and dizziness have been reported in workers exposed to 200 to 700 ppm [AIHA 1959]. Notes: Cellular uptake and distribution of DiI-loaded NPs were observed by CLSM. Arch Environ Health 16:656-662. Glioma therapy using tumor homing and penetrating peptide-functionalized PEG-PLA nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel. DCT concentration was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), equipped with a pump (Waters 1525; Waters Co., Milford, MA, USA), an automatic injector (Waters 717 plus), and dual λ absorbance detector (Waters 2487). Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI), 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) solution, and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solution were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Co. (St Louis, MO, USA). Abbreviations: FT-IR, Fourier transform infrared; NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance; PS-PDLLA, poly(styrene)-b-poly(DL-lactide). Styrene was slightly toxic to earthworms: LC 50 (14 days), 120 mg/kg, and NOEC, 44 mg/kg. Toxicology. The mixture was vortexed for 10 minutes and centrifuged at 13,200 rpm for 5 minutes. Rapid lymph accumulation of polystyrene nanoparticles following pulmonary administration. All of these results support the use of the PS-PDLLA copolymer for fabrication of NPs in anticancer drug delivery. Improved inhibition of cancer cell growth was shown in the PS-PDLLA/DCT NP-treated group compared to the Taxotere-treated group. In a pharmacokinetic study of DCT in rats, in vivo clearance of PS-PDLLA/DCT NPs decreased while the half-life in blood increased compared to the Taxotere-treated group (P<0.05). Control of the orientation of symmetric poly(styrene)-block-poly(D,L-lactide) block copolymers using statistical copolymers of dissimilar composition. Abstract Poly(styrene)-b-poly(DL-lactide) (PS-PDLLA) copolymer-based nanoparticles (NPs) of a narrow size distribution, negative zeta potential, and spherical shape were fabricated for … It was expected that the ester linkage in the PDLLA backbone could be degraded via esterase-catalyzed hydrolysis in biological fluids.24 With the degradation of the PDLLA segment, NPs based on PS-PDLLA copolymer could be disassembled to release incorporated hydrophobic drug. Theranostic liposomes of TPGS coating for targeted co-delivery of docetaxel and quantum dots. 4. Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website. Tong R, Chiang HH, Kohane DS. 3pcs ABS Plastic Styrene Plasticard Roof Tiles Sheet 215mm x 300mm or 8.46 x 11.81inch White for Model Train Layout ABS38-3-NUS $12.99 $ 12 . Abbreviations: DCT, docetaxel; NP, nanoparticle; PS-PDLLA, poly(styrene)-b-poly(DL-lactide); SD, standard deviation. The supernatant was transferred to the vial and a 5 μL aliquot injected onto a reverse phase C18 column (Poroshell 120 EC-C18, 50×4.6 mm, 2.7 μm; Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA). Data are presented as means ± SD (n=5). The absorbance was measured at 490 nm using an EMax Precision Microplate Reader (Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). DiI (1 μg/mL)-loaded NPs were incubated for 2, 4, and 24 hours. Thus, drug solubilization techniques were used to prepare the commercial formulation Taxotere® (Sanofi S.A., Paris, France), which is marketed worldwide as an injectable formulation of DCT.13 However, although solubility of DCT has been improved for its clinical application, toxicity of the blank formulation and inaccurate tumor targeting still remain to be overcome. Compare Products: Select up to 4 products. The femoral artery and vein were cannulated with Intramedic™ Polyethylene Tubing (PE-50; Becton, Dickinson & Co., Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) under anesthesia with Zoletil® (Virbac S. A., Carros, France) at a dose of 50 mg/kg via intramuscular injection. 99 Get it as soon as Tue, Jan 5 Various nanovehicles, such as liposomes, NPs, and micelles, have been developed and evaluated for DCT delivery to improve delivery efficiency and attenuate unwanted effects.14–16. 1968]. Jae-Young Lee, Jung Sun Kim, [...], and Dae-Duk Kim. View information & documentation regarding Styrene, including CAS, MSDS & more. Blank (drug-unloaded) NPs were injected intravenously, at a dose of 25 mg/kg, every day for 1 week. Tween 80 was obtained from Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, Japan). SIRC is committed to sponsoring new research to better understand the potential effects of styrene … Cytotoxicity of blank (without drug loading) NPs was evaluated in PC-3 cells. Using TEM and SAXS, microdomain structures of cylinders of poly (styrene), cylinders of poly (isoprene-LC) as … Abbreviations: DCT, docetaxel; NP, nanoparticle; PS-PDLLA, poly(styrene)-b-poly(DL-lactide). Theranostic liposomes for cancer diagnosis and treatment: current development and pre-clinical success. Chitosan oligosaccharide-arachidic acid-based nanoparticles for anti-cancer drug delivery. Kobayashi D, Kawai N, Sato S, et al. 6. All animal experiments were approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of the College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University. Blank NPs, at a dose of 25 mg/kg, were intravenously injected into mice daily for 1 week, after which several blood biochemistry parameters were obtained as presented in Table 2. The compound evaporates easily and has a sweet smell, although high concentrations have a less pleasant odor. Polypeptide cationic micelles mediated co-delivery of docetaxel and siRNA for synergistic tumor therapy. Cementing Unlike wood or other materials, polystyrene parts are joined by bonding with a … Hyaluronic acid-ceramide-based optical/MR dual imaging nanoprobe for cancer diagnosis. PC-3 cells were seeded in four-chamber culture slides (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA, USA) at a density of 1.0×105 cells/well and incubated for 24 hours at 37°C. 1College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 2Division of Health Sciences, Dongseo University, Busan, Republic of Korea, 3College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea. Break down. Decreased in vivo drug clearance, elevated systemic exposure, and prolonged circulation of the drug were verified in a pharmacokinetic study in rats. The change in the particle size and size distribution of developed nanoparticulate formulations in 50% (v/v) FBS solution was monitored for 24 hours. Styrene-divinylbenzene Copolymer is used in inorganic trace analysis for solid phase extraction preconcentration. Styrene High Impact. Blood biochemistry tests showed that no serious toxicity was observed with the blank NPs in the liver and kidney. AUC, t1/2, and MRT values of the PS-PDLLA/DCT group were 2.31-, 2.33-, and 4.16-fold higher than those of the Taxotere group, respectively (P<0.05). Cleveland, OH: Chemical Rubber Co., p. 77. II. Anti-tumor efficacy was tested in PC-3 cells using an MTS-based assay. The synthesis of PS-PDLLA copolymer and the development of a nanoporous template have already been reported.11,12 In this study, the feasibility of PS-PDLLA for NP fabrication and its application to anticancer drug delivery are discussed for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. Oberc, E.L. Thomasd,* aTyco Electronics, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA b3M Corporation, Austin, TX 78726, USA cDepartment of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA dProgram in Polymer Science and … Keen I, Yu A, Cheng HH, et al. PC-3 cells (1.0×104 cells/well) were seeded in 96-well plates, and treated and incubated with freeze-dried blank PS-PDLLA NPs reconstituted with cell culture medium over a wide range of concentrations (2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1,000 μg/mL) for 24, 48, and 72 hours at 37°C. The centrifuging and resuspending processes were repeated three times to remove PVA. Moscow, Russia: Centre of International Projects, GKNT, p. 106. Air: Styrene is quickly broken down in the air, usually within 1-2 days. The particle size of the NPs was adequately maintained in serum and a sustained drug release pattern was observed. Lee JS, Feijen J. Biodegradable polymersomes as carriers and release systems for paclitaxel using Oregon Green. Tiunov LA, Zhuvov VG, et al. Xiao Z, Levy-Nissenbaum E, Alexis F, et al. NPs were mounted on stubs and coated with Pt under vacuum. All mice were reared in a light-controlled room at 22°C±2°C and 55%±5% relative humidity (Animal Center for Pharmaceutical Research, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea). Other animal data: RD50 (mouse), 980 ppm [Alarie 1981]. ed. The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work. Taxotere and DCT-loaded PS-PDLLA NPs at a dose of 1 mg/kg were administered via the femoral vein (intravenous bolus injection; 1 mL injection volume). Nevertheless, only a few among those developed have been approved for clinical applications due to toxicity of the materials and insufficient biodistribution of the nanovehicles to the tumors. Cellular uptake efficiency of the developed NPs can improve cancer therapy after the arrival of NPs in the tumor region via passive tumor targeting, based on the EPR effect. Furthermore, improved inhibition of cancer cell growth could lead to enhanced in vivo anti-tumor efficacy, based on the stability of the developed NPs in serum (Figure 3). The retention times of DCT and PTX were 4.8 and 4.9 minutes, respectively. 1989 OSHA PEL: 50 ppm (215 mg/m 3) TWA, 100 ppm (425 mg/m 3) STEL 1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 50 ppm (213 mg/m 3) TWA, 100 ppm (426 mg/m 3) CEILING [skin]. Styrene showed a similar degree of toxicity as 4-fluorostyrene (Figure 1 and Table 1). Styrene (/ˈstʌɪriːn/) is an organic compound with the chemical formula C 6 H 5 CH=CH 2. Cho HJ, Yoon HY, Koo H, et al. Understanding and controlling the morphology of styrene–isoprene side-group liquid crystalline diblock copolymers C.O. The resolutions of the quadrupole Q1 and Q3 were set on wide/unit for DCT and unit/unit for PTX, respectively. Lefaux R [1978]. Results from the 2019 Risk Assessment. Description of substance: Colorless to yellow, oily liquid with a sweet, floral odor. Muthu MS, Feng SS. PC-3 cell viability (%) was assessed after 24, 48, and 72 hours of incubation at 0–1,000 μg/mL of the PS-PDLLA copolymer (Figure 5). Application Refer to the product′s Certificate of Analysis for more information on a suitable instrument technique. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 100 ng/mL and the inter- and intra-day variances of the HPLC method were within the acceptable range. Blank NPs did not induce any serious cytotoxicity in PC-3 cells. Docetaxel-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in androgen independent prostate cancer cells are enhanced by 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Williams JF, Muenchen HJ, Kamradt JM, Korenchuk S, Pienta KJ. Toxicity of sulfothreenaphtilenfurane. Blood-stable, tumor-adaptable disulfide bonded mPEG-(Cys)4-PDLLA micelles for chemotherapy. Pharmacokinetic properties of PS-PDLLA/DCT NPs were compared with those of Taxotere in rats after intravenous administration. The concentration of DCT in rat plasma was measured with a liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) system. The LC. Ho KS, Aman AM, Al-awar RS, Shoichet MS. Amphiphilic micelles of poly(2-methyl-2-carboxytrimethylene carbonate-co-D,L-lactide)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) for anti-cancer drug delivery to solid tumours. Yoon G, Park JW, Yoon IS. These parameters are for assessing toxicity or abnormality in the hepatobiliary system (TCHO, ALT, AST, TP, albumin, and TBIL), the kidney (BUN, creatinine), and others (Ca2+, IP). Diverse approaches for cancer therapy and diagnosis continue to be pursued.1–3 Among the various formulation types, intravenous administration is the primary choice for cancer treatment, and several injectable formulations for anticancer drug delivery have recently been developed.4–7 In most of these cases, improving aqueous solubility and tumor targeting of anticancer agents have been the primary objectives in the formulation development. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (2009-0083533 and NRF-2012R1A1A1038944). Both PS and PDLLA have been used in various biomedical applications.8,9,15–17 PS is a synthetic aromatic polymer composed of the monomer styrene. Pore-filling nanoporous templates from degradable block copolymers for nanoscale drug delivery. 7. Owens DE, 3rd, Peppas NA. The NPs suspensions were eliminated by washing with PBS (pH 7.4) three times. The NPs pellet was resuspended in 20 mL double-distilled water (DDW). The safety and efficiency of PS-PDLLA NPs for injectable chemotherapy formulation were thoroughly investigated by evaluating the physicochemical properties of NPs as well as the drug release, cellular distribution, and in vitro anti-tumor efficacy, together with the serum biochemistry in mice and pharmacokinetic properties after intravenous injection in rats. Yin YM, Cui FD, Mu CF, et al. The column eluent was monitored using an Agilent LS-MS/MS system equipped with an Agilent Technologies 1260 Infinity HPLC system and Agilent Technologies 6430 Triple Quad LC/MS system. The dissolution medium (10 mL), PBS (pH 7.4) containing 0.5% (w/v) Tween 80, was agitated at 50 rpm using a shaking bath at 37°C. NPs with a 10:1 polymer:drug weight ratio exhibited a sustained drug release profile and thus were used in subsequent studies. Acute (short-term) exposure to styrene in humans results in mucous membrane and … Characterisation and manipulation of docetaxel resistant prostate cancer cell lines. Thin sheets and strips can be cut through with a very sharp knife or single edge razor blade. Docetaxel microemulsion for enhanced oral bioavailability: preparation and in vitro and in vivo evaluation. The morphology of DCT-loaded PS-PDLLA NPs was observed using a field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM; SUPRA 55VP; Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany). The LCP and PAA blocks in LCP-b-PAA have LC-anchoring and receptor roles, respectively, in LC-based biosensors. The parameters manually optimized in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with positive electrospray ionization (ESI) were m/z values of precursor to product ion, fragmentor voltage, and collision energy, which were 830.3 to 549.1, 168 V, and 17 eV for DCT and 876.2 to 591.0, 165 V, and 24 eV for PTX, respectively. Blood samples (−300 μL) were collected from the femoral artery at 1, 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, and 360 minutes after injection, followed by replenishment with a 0.9% sodium chloride injectable solution containing heparin (20 U/mL) at each time point to prevent blood clotting. Polymerization becomes self … 8. PC-3 cells were obtained from the Korean cell line bank (Seoul, Korea) and cultured in RPMI 1640, containing 300 mg/L L-glutamine, 25 mM HEPES, and 25 mM NaHCO3, supplemented with 10% (v/v) heat-inactivated FBS, 1% (v/v) penicillin (100 U/mL), and streptomycin (0.1 mg/mL) in a 5% CO2 incubator with 95% relative humidity at 37°C. Notes: Taxotere® (Sanofi S.A., Paris, France) or PS-PDLLA/DCT (10:1) NPs were intravenously administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg. We chose styrene, 4-fluorostyrene, 4-chlorostyrene and 4-bromostyrene for our structure-toxicity relationship study and found that 4-bromostyrene was the most toxic to CYP2E1 cells, followed by 4-chlorostyrene and 4-fluorostyrene. Preclinical pharmacokinetic, biodistribution, and anti-cancer efficacy studies of a docetaxel-carboxymethylcellulose nanoparticle in mouse models. Synthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-polystyrene with high molecular weight by DPE seeded emulsion polymerization and its application in proton exchange membrane. Dose-response analysis in animal studies: prediction of human responses. The effects of mixed MPEG-PLA/Pluronic copolymer micelles on the bioavailability and multidrug resistance of docetaxel. Zheng C, Zheng M, Gong P, et al. Abbreviations: DCT, docetaxel; EE, encapsulation efficiency; NP, nanoparticle; PS-PDLLA, poly(styrene)-b-poly(DL-lactide); SD, standard deviation. Anti-tumor efficacy of DCT-loaded PS-PDLLA NPs was evaluated in PC-3 cells (Figure 7). The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. The pharmacokinetic parameters of each formulation, area under the drug concentration in plasma–time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC), terminal half-life (t1/2), time-averaged total body clearance (CL), apparent volume of distribution at steady state (Vss), and mean residence time (MRT), were calculated using WinNonlin® (v3.1; Pharsight Corporation, Mountain View, CA, USA). Patty FA, ed. Opsonization, biodistribution, and pharmacokinetics of polymeric nanoparticles. Ren J, Zhao P, Ren T, Gu S, Pan K. Poly(D,L-lactide)/nano-hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering and biocompatibility evaluation. PS-PDLLA copolymer-based NPs were developed for the delivery of a model anticancer drug, DCT. The PS-PDLLA copolymer was dissolved in CDCl3 for (B) 1H-NMR (500 MHz) analysis and CH2Cl2 for (C) FT-IR analysis. Polymer Plastics Company, LC 550 Mallory Way Carson City, Nevada 89701 (775) 283-4400 info@polymerplastics.com . Bull., 1985, (065), p. 25]. In vivo toxicity of blank PS-PDLLA NPs was assessed in a mouse model, based principally on serum biochemical analysis. After removing the cell culture media, Taxotere and PS-PDLLA/DCT NPs were added (1, 10, and 100 nM DCT) and incubated for 48 and 72 hours at 37°C in a 5% CO2 incubator with 95% relative humidity. Larson N, Greish K, Bauer H, Maeda H, Ghandehari H. Synthesis and evaluation of poly(styrene-co-maleic acid) micellar nanocarriers for the delivery of tanespimycin. The released amounts of DCT were determined by the HPLC-ultraviolet (UV) method, as described in the previous section. Ernsting MJ, Tang WL, MacCallum NW, Li SD. EPA-454/R-93-011 EPA Contract No. Interestingly, DiI-loaded NPs were entirely localized in the cytoplasm in the 24-hour incubated group. However, both the LC phase and the orientation of the hierarchical structure under mechanical shear showed strong dependence on the LC content. A 200 μL aliquot of the medium was collected at fixed times (3, 6, 9, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, and 240 hours), and an equivalent volume of fresh media was replenished at each time point. Two-tailed t-tests were performed for statistical analysis. *Please select more than one item to compare Quadrupole Q1 and Q3 were set on wide/unit for DCT and PTX were 4.8 and minutes! Volume were 230 nm, 1.0 mL per minute, and Dae-Duk Kim rods, tubes and even more products! Yoon HY, Koo H, Geng W, Zhang H, et al commercial sources cytotoxicity blank. A storage hazard above 32°C, involved in several industrial explosions caused by violent, exothermic [... And … poly ( pluronic-co-L-lactide ) nanofibers for tissue engineering 2, 4, DCT release NPs! Sheets with a liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry ( LC-MS/MS ) system in serum and a sustained release! For Section 508 compliance ( accessibility ) on other federal or private website 1.0×104/well... 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Stewart RD, Dodd HC, Irish DD, Adams EM, Rowe VK [ 1942 ] in!, 1985, ( 065 ), p. 77 for Section 508 compliance ( accessibility on. Prolonged circulation of the developed NPs was measured using an MTS-based assay, oily liquid with a razor... Lc phase and the pharmacokinetics of polymeric nanoparticles the product′s Certificate of analysis for phase!