Being cyberbullied was measured with the Cyberbullying Questionnaire, general coping with the Utrecht Coping List, and cyberbullying-specific coping with a questionnaire developed for this study. This implies that there is often lack of supervision of the bully, which may worsen the bullying [10]. , , and Cyberbullying emotion-focused for health complaints). In the case of high scores this relationship is, however, much stronger. Gender differences in seven coping strategies were examined in terms of frequency of use, extent of use, relative use, and the frequency with which each method was used first in the coping sequence. H. Vandebosch, Cleemput, K. van, D. Mortelmans, and M. Walrave, R. Slonje and P. K. Smith, “Cyberbullying: another main type of bullying? People, as well as simply having emotion, also live in a constant process of making sense of their emotions. A. Vermulst, R. Spijkerman, and R. C. M. E. Engels, “Online communication, compulsive internet use, and psychosocial wellbeing among adolescents: a longitudinal study,”, A. Sevcikova, D. Smahel, and M. Otavova, “The perception of cyberbullying in adolescent victims,”, T. Cassidy and L. Taylor, “Coping and psychological distress as a function of the bully victim dichotomy in older children,”, P. K. Smith, S. Shu, and K. Madsen, “Characteristics of victims of schoolbullying: developmental changes in copingstrategies ands skills,” in, B. Kochenderfer-Ladd and K. Skinner, “Children's coping strategies: moderators of the effects of peer victimization?”, J. Lodge and E. Frydenberg, “Cyber-bullying in Australian schools: profils of adolescent coping and insights,”, T. Völlink, C. A. W. Bolman, F. Dehue, and N. Jacobs, “Coping with cyberbullying: differences between victims, bully-victims and children not involved in bullying,”, E. Burton, E. Stice, and J. R. Seeley, “A prospective test of the stress-buffering model of depression in adolescent girls: no support once again,”, S. C. Hunter, J. Mora-Merchan, and R. Ortega, “The long-term effects of coping strategy use in victims of bullying,”, K. Machmutow, S. Perren, F. Sticca, and F. D. Alsaker, “Peer victimisation and depressive symptoms: can specific coping strategies buffer the negative impact of cybervictimisation?”, J. Riebel, R. S. Jäger, and U. C. Fischer, “Cyberbullying in Germany—an exploration of prevalence, overlapping with real life bullying and coping strategies,”, D. S. J. Hawker and M. J. Boulton, “Twenty years' research on peer victimization and psychosocial maladjustment: a meta-analytic review of cross-sectional studies,”, M. F. Van der Wal, C. A. M. De Wit, and R. A. Hirasing, “Psychosocial health among young victims and offenders of direct and indirect bullying,”, P. K. Smith, J. Mahdavi, M. Carvalho, and N. Tippett, “An investigation into cyberbullying, its forms, awareness and impact, and the relationship between age and gender in cyberbullying,”, J. O. Bijstra, S. Jackson, and H. A. Bosma, “Utrecht copinglist for adolescents,”. A future study should also consider using multiple sources of information, such as parents, peers, or teachers, to gain more information about the victims of Cyberbullying. By closing this message, you are consenting to our use of cookies. In this view, emotion is seen as foundational in the construction of the self and is a key determinant of self-organization. Cyberbullying often results in health complaints and poor well-being [13, 19, 24, 25]. , However, a child that has been insulted once in a chatroom or by mail may not have the feeling to be cyberbullied. In line with traditional bullying, Cyberbullying also often concerns online bullying among peers. Add to cart, Issue Purchase Furthermore, this study focused on secondary appraisal, whereas the personal interpretation of the stressful situation can also be very important [30]. Research furthermore revealed that the children and adolescents who were traditionally bullied also more often became a victim of Cyberbullying [4, 5, 19, 22]. , Marshall and Dunkel-Schetter (1987) reviewed factor-analytic studies of the most widely used coping measure, the Ways of Coping Inventory (Folkman & Lazarus, 1980). Corresponding Author. The conceptualization of emotion-focused coping was introduced by Lazarus and Folkman in the framework of their cognitive model of stress and coping. ). 1,589 Views 62 CrossRef citations to date Altmetric Articles Resilience, self-efficacy, coping styles and depressive and anxiety symptoms in those newly diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. Summary of the hierarchical regression analyses of bullied children for the predicted values of depression (, Emotion-Focused Coping Worsens Depressive Feelings and Health Complaints in Cyberbullied Children, Department of Psychology, Open University of the Netherlands, Valkenburgerweg 177, 6419 AT Heerlen, The Netherlands, (4) Problem- focused cyberspecific coping, (5) Emotion- focused cyberspecific coping, Victim of cyberbullying × problem-focused general coping, Victim of cyberbullying × emotion-focused general coping. Smith and colleagues (2001) concluded in their literature overview that seeking social support is an effective coping strategy to stop Cyberbullying [31]. Frequency (in %) of being bullied compared to gender and age. A summary of an emotion-focused approach to therapy (EFT) and its research base is presented. Therefore, in this study, we choose to maintain the aspect of repeating incidence over time. Many people think mainly of solution-focused coping strategies as … This research is a quantitative model of pre-experimental pre-test post-test group design .. one sample was 22 people, with purposive sampling techniques. Emotion-focused cyber-specific coping was strongly related to depressive feelings and health complaints: the greater the use of emotion-focused coping, the higher the perceived health complaints and depressive feelings. . Submit an article Journal homepage. Children should be informed that emotion-focussed coping is not effective in case of Cyberbullying. A study of Perren and colleagues revealed that victims of Cyberbullying have higher levels of depressive symptoms than bullies and noninvolved children, even when victimization of traditional bullying is controlled for [22]. This might occur through self-soothing or avoidance. Step 2 showed that the explained variance increased substantially when the general and cyber-specific problem-focused and emotion-focused copings were added and had risen to 43% for depression ( Adding gender and duration of Cyberbullying in step 3 increased the explained variation in depression significantly by 5% ( F. Dehue, C. Bolman, and T. Völlink, “Cyber-bullying: what do children do and do parents know?” Tech. We use cookies to improve your website experience. We found that victimization was more strongly associated with reporting health complaints in cases of high scores on emotion-focused coping compared with the situation of low scores on emotion-focused coping. The theory assumes that people who use problem-focused coping strategies adapt better to stressful situations than people using passive, emotion-focused coping strategies [30]. The importance of coping in the relationship between victimization and health is derived from research in traditional bullying. Gender did not add any variation ( That scale initially consisted of five items, though one item (i.e., “Fighting back on the internet or mobile phone”) was left out to increase the Cronbach’s alpha. . The direct measurement of victimization of Cyberbullying was measured by the direct two-item measurement scale of the Cyberbullying Questionnaire [41]. Recommended articles lists articles that we recommend and is powered by our AI driven recommendation engine. The regression models were built in step one by entering the main effect “victimization” into the model, in step 2 by entering “coping” in the model, in step 3 by adding “gender”, and in step 4 by adding the interaction terms described previuosly. This study examined the effects of Cyberbullying on depressive feelings and health complaints among children of the lowest grade of secondary school and the influence of coping on this relationship. They were extra and left out of the analyses. Health complaints were measured with the Short Questionnaire for Experienced Health and depressive feelings with the shortened Children’s Depression Inventory. ). Hierarchical regression analyses were carried out separately for health complaints and depressive feelings, respectively. (2013) [34] studied how coping influenced the relationship between Cyberbullying and health. As a consequence the impact of bullying cannot be seen and the victim can easily misinterpret messages. (2013) [23] found that global self-esteem and emphatic concern were not significantly related to repeated Cyberbullying behaviour over and above traditional bullying, rule-breaking behaviour, and frequency of online communication. We conducted a cross-sectional mail-out survey among 325 year 7 students from three state schools in a city in the south of England. P. Taylor and S. Keeter, “Millennials, a portrait of generation next: Confident, Connected, Open to Change,” Tech. This survey among 325 children focused on the role coping strategies may play in the relationship between cyberbullying and depressive feelings and health complaints. ). One item for example is “I pretend that the bullying did not happen.” In line with the UCL-A, the items were scored on the four-point scale with the following answer categories: rarely or never (1), sometimes (2), often (3), and very often (4). compared to noninvolved children. It correlated negatively with depression, which means that a high score on problem-focused general coping relates to fewer depressive complaints. Although our study showed that problem-focused coping resulted in fewer health complaints and depressive feelings and that emotion-focused coping led to more health complaints and depressive feelings, it did not confirm Eighty-nine participants identified a current stressful situation and then were randomly assigned to either: (a) write for 15 minutes about their feelings (emotional-approach coping); or (b) write about how to solve their problem (problem-focused coping). The definition of Smith et al. They consider it to be a two-dimensional construct, one of emotion-focused coping and one of problem-focused coping. In these analyses, the factor frequency of being cyberbullied (in the past couple of months only once or twice; several times; very often) was taken into account as covariate and therefore entered first. Because of the similarities between traditional and Cyberbullying, the theory is expected to be useful for explaining the health-related effects of Cyberbullying. This rose by 6% in the coping strategies ( In the study of Völlink et al., it was found that general avoidance coping and coping through emotional expression to deal with stressors in daily life lead to more cyber-specific depressive coping when confronted with Cyberbullying which in turn results in more depressive feelings and health complaints. Pearson correlations of the central variables (, Summary of the hierarchical regression analyses of general coping strategies on depressive feelings (, Summary of simple slope analyses of the effect of general emotion-focused coping on the relationship between being bullied and health complaints (. Register to receive personalised research and resources by email, Emotional approach and problem-focused coping: A comparison of potentially adaptive strategies, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign , Champaign, IL, USA, /doi/full/10.1080/02699930600562276?needAccess=true. Victims explained that perpetration that took place in the online environment and was transferred offline or interfered with their offline relationships was perceived as most painful [27]. , Cyberbullying related problem-focused The emotion-focused cyber-specific coping scale consisted of 19 items; the problem-focused cyber-specific coping scale was formed by adding up four items. emotion-focused coping strategies, such as seeking to regulate the person’s emotional experience (see Thayer and Lane, 2000). Gender was taken into account because previous research reported that bullied girls more frequently complain of depression than boys [39, 40]. Duration of Cyberbullying and cyber-specific coping were not included in the analyses, because the analyses were conducted on the whole sample and only the cyberbullied children were asked to respond to these factors. They found that support seeking from peers and family had a buffering effect on the relation between cybervictimization at moderated this relationship. To examine the hypotheses, four hierarchical multiple regression analyses (MRA) were performed. Correlation analyses showed strong relationships between victimization, coping, depressive feelings, and health complaints. There are other differences between traditional bullying and Cyberbullying that is not captured in the definition for Cyberbullying. In addition, age and gender were assessed. : personality and Social Sciences,”, F. Dehue, C. Bolman, and T. Völlink, “Cyberbullying: Youngsters' experiences and parental perception,”, M. L. Ybarra and K. J. Mitchell, “Online aggressor/targets, aggressors, and targets: a comparison of associated youth characteristics,”, J. Wolak, K. J. Mitchell, and D. Finkelhor, “Does online harrassment constitute bullying? Slightly more girls (53%) than boys (47.7%) were included. All children filled in the questionnaire plenary in the classroom after instructions of their teacher. Children were reminded by the teachers that they could fill out the questionnaire anonymously, that their participation was voluntary, and that there were no wrong answers. Next, the coping variables (general coping strategies and cyber specific) were entered into the model. Dimensions of emotional processing (e.g., clarity and attention to emotions) were assessed using self-report. interaction terms were calculated (four interaction terms, the products of general problem-focused Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. This is contrary to the findings of others on traditional bullying [28, 31, 35, 36] and the longitudinal study of Machmutow et al. ). 39 Emotion-focused coping regulates stressful emotions by changing the way the relationships in the environment are attended to, and reappraisal of these if necessary. Four coping scales were considered: general problem-focused coping, general emotion-focused coping, Cyberbullying-related problem-focused coping, and Cyberbullying emotion-focused coping. Additionally, it is recommended to differentiate between distinctive subgroups when discussing the seriousness of Cyberbullying. Coping effectiveness was assessed by measuring positive affect, negative affect, and physical symptoms. jherman1@gmu.edu ; George Mason University. , Cyberbullying-related problem-focused coping for help theory is expected to be negatively associated with stress responses... Evaluate its clarity, completeness and correctness coping correlate with the Crossref icon will in... And victims did not show less problem-focused coping, one attempts to handle stressful. On an earlier draft of this number, 32.6 % were a little less by mobile phone and 24.1 through! It is also helpful to inform them about more effective circumstances emotional-approach and. 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Affects children ’ s emotional experience ( see Thayer and Lane, )... Forms of social support, and Machmutow et al new submissions are consenting to knowledge. Shows cyber-specific coping was associated with depressive feelings and health complaints and poor well-being [ 13, 19 24.